dark and bright field microscopy

What is bright field microscopy?

Bright field microscopy is the conventional technique. It is suitable for observing the natural colors of a specimen or the observation of stained samples. The specimen appears darker on a bright background.

What is dark field microscopy?

Darkfield microscopy shows the specimens bright on a dark background. Brightfield microscopes that have a condenser with a filter holder can be easily converted to darkfield by placing a patch stop filter into the filter holder. The specimens appear brigh, because they reflect the light from the microscope into the objective.

When to Use a Dark Field Microscope

Dark field microscopes are used in a number of different ways to view a variety of specimens that are hard to see in a light field unit. Live bacteria, for example, are best viewed with this type of microscope, as these organisms are very transparent when unstained.

There are multitudes of other ways to use dark field illumination, often when the specimen is clear or translucent. Some examples:

Dark field illumination of caffeine crystalsLiving or lightly stained transparent specimens

Single-celled organisms

Live blood samples

Aquatic environment samples (from seawater to pond water)

Living bacteria

Hay or soil samples

Pollen samples

Certain molecules such as caffeine crystals (right)

Dark field microscopy makes many invisible specimens appear visible. Most of the time the specimens invisible to bright field illumination are living, so you can see how important it is to bring them into view!

dark field microscopy Advantages and Disadvantages

No one system is perfect, and dark field microscopy may or may not appeal to you depending on your needs.

Some advantages of using a dark field microscope are:

Extremely simple to use

Inexpensive to set up (instructions on how to make your own dark field microscope are below)

Very effective in showing the details of live and unstained samples

Some of the disadvantages are:

Limited colors (certain colors will appear, but they're less accurate and most images will be just black and white)

Images can be difficult to interpret to those unfamiliar with dark field microscopy

Although surface details can be very apparent, the internal details of a specimen often don't stand out as much with a dark field setup.

Below are contrasting examples of dark field (left) versus bright field (right) illumination of lens tissue paper. Note how they both create a different style of image.

Dark field illumination Bright field illumination

Admit it, by now you're curious to check out your own dark field! You can create one with minimal time and effort. Just read on…

How to Make a Dark Field Microscope

You don't need to buy a huge expensive set-up to experiment with dark field illumination.

To create a dark field, an opaque circle called a patchstop is placed in the condenser of the microscope. The patchstop prevents direct light from reaching the objective lens, and the only light that does reach the lens is reflected or refracted by the specimen. Easy enough, right?

If you want to make a dark field microscope you'll first need a regular light microscope. Below is your full list of "ingredients":

Dark field microscopeMicroscope
Hole punch
Black construction paper
Transparency film

Now use the following steps to make your patchstop:

Set up your microscope and choose the lowest-power objective lens.

Set the eyepiece aside somewhere safe.

Open the diaphragm as wide as possible. Then slowly close it until is just encroaches on the circle of visible light.

Now bend over and take a look at the diaphragm from below. See that opening? It's only slightly smaller than the finished patchstop you'll create.

Punch a few circles in the black construction paper with the hole punch. Measure one against the diaphragm opening. If it's more than 10% larger, cut it down to about that size (10% larger than the diaphragm opening). If it's smaller, cut out a larger circle.

Cut a 5 cm square of transparency paper.

Glue the black circle onto the transparency film, about 2 cm from the corner of the square. In that free 2 cm of paper, write the correct magnification power of your objective.

Mark the patchstop with the correct magnification power.

Repeat the above steps for all the objective powers except the oil immersion lenses.

Now use your patchstop to turn a light field unit into a dark field microscope:

Select the correct patchstop for the objective power to be used.

Slip the patchstop between the filter holder and condenser. If your microscope has no filter, hold it manually below the condenser.

Remove the eyepiece.

Open the diaphragm and move the patchstop until the light is blocked entirely. Use tape to secure it if there is no condenser on your microscope.

Replace the eyepiece and examine the sample.


What is light and dark reactions of photosynthesis animation

light and dark reactions of photosynthesis animation

This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on an original activities by Bjørn Vidnes, Norwegian Centre of Science Education, Cato Tandberg, University of Oslo, Wenche Erlien, Norwegian Centre of Science Education, Graham Kent, Grant College, Joyce Diwan, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, John Kyrk, Science Graphics, Rodney Boyer, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc., Mike Tyree, Virginia Tech, and John Whitemarsh and Govindjee, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Drawings and visualizations are used to help participants conceptualize the location and steps involved in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.http://www.dark-field-microscope.com/2017/10/16/light-and-dark-reactions-of-photosynthesis-animation/

This teaching strategy provides a more hands-on approach to the dark reactions of photosynthesis that helps students visualize how carbon dioxide enters the leaf and is converted into stored energy. It usually takes two lectures for students to gain a full understanding of when and how these reactions occur. With drawings and visualizations of leaf cells and reactions that take place, students have a more hands-on conceptualization of how these processes occur. Participants should have some familiarity of plant morphology and cell biology before approaching this topic. There is usually good understanding of where reactions take place, but a little more difficulty in understanding the specific steps. Animations and visualizations of these topics (see References and Resources below), interspersed during discussion, help participants keep actively engaged in the learning experience.


working principle of dark field microscopy

working principle of dark field microscopy

Darkfield microscopy is one of the simplest and cheapest contrast enhancing techniques. It works well for specimens that have a refractive index which is different from its surrounding medium, but which are difficult to see because they lack color. Dark field microscopy shows the specimen bright on a dark background.Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger…Darkfield microscopy is one of the simplest and cheapest contrast enhancing techniques. It works well for specimens that have a refractive index which is different from its surrounding medium, but which are difficult to see because they lack color. Dark field microscopy shows the specimen bright on a dark background.


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger…A darkfield filter (patch stop) placed into the filter holder of the condenser. To the left and the right are the centering screws.Potato starch grains. Left: darkfield image; Center: Brightfield, inverted colors; Right: Brightfield; The comparison shows that a darkfield image is not simply an inverted version of a brightfield image. Darkfield images have more sharply defined corners.Maize. Left: darkfield image; Center: Brightfield, inverted colors; Right: Brightfield; The darkfield image possesses less contrast due to the opened aperture diaphragm and a different color representation.

To achieve a darkfield image, it is necessary to place a dark field filter (a “patch stop”) into the filter holder of the condenser. This filter prevents light of the lamp to directly enter the objective (therefore the background appears dark). The specimen will be illuminated from the side and will scatter some of the light to enter the objective. The specimen will appear bright on dark background.It can be compared to dust floating in the air with sun shining in from the side through a window.

The dust is illuminated by the sun and appears bright on dark background.There are two possibilities to achieve a darkfield image: By using specialized darkfield condensers: This is the best but also the most expensive solution. By using a darkfield filter (a “patch stop”) which is placed into the filter holder of the condenser. It is possible to make the patch stop out of cardboard or a tin can using a cutting knife and scissors.Advantages of darkfield microscopy: It is a simple procedure which can be used on live transparent specimens, specimens which normally need to be stained (and therefore killed). The images appear spectacular and are visually impressive. Darkfield microscopy even allows for the visualization of objects that are below (!) the resolution of the microscope.

These objects will appear as bright spots on a dark background. It is not possible to see the shape of these objects, however.Some possible disadvantages of darkfield microscopy: Darkfield microscopy is very sensitive to dirt and dust located in the light path. It is not suitable for all specimens. If the refractive index of a transparent specimen is similar to the surrounding medium, then the specimen light will pass right through the specimen and it will not be scattered into the objective. The intensity of the illumination system must be high so see the specimen properly. It is necessary to open the condenser aperture diaphragm, and this limits the effective use of the diaphragm. One patch stop is generally sufficient for low magnification work, but at a higher magnification the quality of the image drops. It may be necessary to experiment with different patch stop sizes for the different objectives.

how does dark field microscopy work

What is Dark Field microscopy?

dark field microscopy is a technique used to observe unstained samples causing them to appear brightly lit against a dark, almost purely black, background.

Pictured right: Highly magnified image of sugar crystals using darkfield microscopy technique

When light hits an object, rays are scattered in all azimuths or directions. The design of the dark field microscope is such that it removes the dispersed light, or zeroth order, so that only the scattered beams hit the sample.

The introduction of a condenser and/or stop below the stage ensures that these light rays will hit the specimen at different angles, rather than as a direct light source above/below the object.

The result is a “cone of light” where rays are diffracted, reflected and/or refracted off the object, ultimately, allowing you to view a specimen in dark field.


how does dark field microscopy work?

Here is a basic definition: a dark field microscope is arranged so that the light source is blocked off, causing light to scatter as it hits the specimen.

This is ideal for making objects with refractive values similar to the background appear bright against a dark background.

A researcher can achieve dark field by making modifications to his/her microscope.

If a microscope has built-in elements to easily modify for dark field illumination, the manufacturer usually lists this amongst the observation specifications.

You can achieve dark field by using condensers, mirrors and/or a “stop.” Some microscopes come with these accessories or researchers can purchase dark field kits, or even use some common items to adapt a microscope for dark field illumination.

In bright field illumination, the object is lit from below the stage, resulting in a larger, contrasted image that can be studied.

A dark field microscope blocks this central light with a condenser so that only oblique rays hit the object.

An Abbe condenser, for example, contains a concave orb that collects light rays in all azimuths that bounce off a sample to form a cone of illumination.

If there is nothing on the stage, the aperture of the condenser is greater than the objective and the view will be completely black.

A stop is an opaque object that blocks the central light when placed underneath the stage condenser.

This also causes light to scatter in all azimuths, resulting in a cone of light that allows for dark field observation.
If you do not have access to these accessories and cannot afford a dark field kit, there are alternative ways to adapt your microscope for dark field illumination.

The expensive stops are all made of opaque material.

Any possible substitutions cannot have any transparent properties.

One option is to use a circular object, such as a coin; adhere the coin to a larger disk and place below the stage.

You can also cut out a round piece of thick paper, such as construction paper, cardboard or poster-board, and attach to the condenser.

Whatever you use, the trick is to find the right diameter so that the makeshift stop will block the light and only allow the oblique rays to illuminate the specimen.

Advantages of Dark Field Microscopy

A dark field microscope is ideal for viewing objects that are unstained, transparent and absorb little or no light.

These specimens often have similar refractive indices as their surroundings, making them hard to distinguish with other illumination techniques.

You can use dark field to study marine organisms such as algae and plankton, diatoms, insects, fibers, hairs, yeast and protozoa as well as some minerals and crystals, thin polymers and some ceramics.

You can also use dark field in the research of live bacterium, as well as mounted cells and tissues.

It is more useful in examining external details, such as outlines, edges, grain boundaries and surface defects than internal structure.

Dark field microscopy is often dismissed for more modern observation techniques such as phase contrast and DIC, which provide more accurate, higher contrasted images and can be used to observe a greater number of specimens.

Recently, dark field has regained some of its popularity when combined with other illumination techniques, such as fluorescence, which widens its possible employment in certain fields.

Disadvantages of Dark Field Microscopy

A dark field microscope can result in beautiful and amazing images; this technique also comes with a number of disadvantages.

First, dark field images are prone to degradation, distortion and inaccuracies.
A specimen that is not thin enough or its density differs across the slide, may appear to have artifacts throughout the image.
The preparation and quality of the slides can grossly affect the contrast and accuracy of a dark field image.
You need to take special care that the slide, stage, nose and light source are free from small particles such as dust, as these will appear as part of the image.
Similarly, if you need to use oil or water on the condenser and/or slide, it is almost impossible to avoid all air bubbles.
These liquid bubbles will cause images degradation, flare and distortion and even decrease the contrast and details of the specimen.
Dark field needs an intense amount of light to work. This, coupled with the fact that it relies exclusively on scattered light rays, can cause glare and distortion.
It is not a reliable tool to obtain accurate measurements of specimens.
Finally, numerous problems can arise when adapting and using a dark field microscope. The amount and intensity of light, the position, size and placement of the condenser and stop need to be correct to avoid any aberrations.

Dark field has many applications and is a wonderful observation tool, especially when used in conjunction with other techniques.

However, when employing this technique as part of a research study, you need to take into consideration the limitations and knowledge of possible unwanted artifacts.


darkfield microscope

What is darkfield microscope?

Brightfield microscopy uses light from the lamp source under the microscope stage to illuminate the specimen. This light is gathered in the condenser, then shaped into a cone where the apex is focused on the plane of the specimen. In order to view a specimen under a brightfield microscope, the light rays that pass through it must be changed enough in order to interfere with each other (or contrast) and therefore, build an image. At times, a specimen will have a refractive index very similar to the surrounding medium between the microscope stage and the objective lens. When this happens, the image can not be seen. In order to visualize these biological materials well, they must have a contrast caused by the proper refractive indices, or be artificially stained. Since staining can kill specimens, there are times when darkfield microscopy is used instead.

In darkfield microscopy the condenser is designed to form a hollow cone of light (see illustration below), as apposed to brightfield microscopy that illuminates the sample with a full cone of light. In darkfield microscopy, the objective lens sits in the dark hollow of this cone and light travels around the objective lens, but does not enter the cone shaped area. The entire field of view appears dark when there is no sample on the microscope stage. However, when a sample is placed on the stage it appears bright against a dark background. It is similar to back-lighting an object that may be the same color as the background it sits against – in order to make it stand out.

Where Need use Darkfield Microscope Applications?

Viewing blood cells (biological darkfield microscope, combined with phase contrast)
Viewing bacteria (biological darkfield microscope, often combined with phase contrast)
Viewing different types of algae (biological darkfield microscope)
Viewing hairline metal fractures (metallurgical darkfield microscope)
Viewing diamonds and other precious stones (gemological microscope or stereo darkfield microscope)
Viewing shrimp or other invertebrates (stereo darkfield microscope)


What is Darkfield Microscope Options?

Metallurigcal reflected light brightfield/darkfield microscope.
Metallurgical reflected and transmitted light brightfield/darkfield microscope.
Stereo microscope 420 with darkfield attachment.
Stereo Zoom SMZ-168 microscope with darkfield attachment.
Biological laboratory phase contrast microscope with darkfield for up to 40x.
Biological laboratory microscope BA210 with darkfield slider.
Biological student microscope 162 with darkfield attachment.

Already have a microscope, but your microscope manufacturer does not make a darkfield stop? If there is a filter holder below your condenser, a darkfield stop we carry may work. Or you can mount a coin or circle of another opaque material in the center of a clear disk and put it in the filter holder.

Here Better Ways to which of the following microscopes provide 3d images of samples

Here Better Ways to which of the following microscopes provide 3d images of samples


Which of the following microscopes provide 3d images of samples? a. dissecting microscope and compound light microscope b. dissecting microscope and scanning electron microscope c. scanning electron microscope and compound light microscope d. compound light microscope and transmission electron microscope

Which of the following microscopes provide 3D images of samples?
a. dissecting microscope and compound light microscope
b. dissecting microscope and scanning electron microscope
c. scanning electron microscope and compound light microscope
d. compound light microscope and transmission electron microscope



You get a 3D view only from a stereoscopic dissecting scope.

But your teacher probably wants
Scanning electron microscope
which is pretty dumb. The CRT screen looks pretty flat to me, no matter how much shadowing the image has.


Scanning Electron Microscope

Scanning electron microscope.

dissecting microscope and scanning electron microscope

From the question, we are asked which among the presented choices is a microscope that is capable of providing 3D images of samples. The answer is letter "C. scanning electron microscope and compound light microscope". These are the advanced microscopes utilized at present that project the configuration of cell in a close and clearer view.


Video microscopes provide 3d images of samples

What quantum bio energy analyzer why it?

What quantum bio energy analyzer

The human body is the aggregates of a large number of cells which are in continuous growth, development, differentiation, regeneration and apoptosis, and the cells constantly self-renew through its own division. 25 million cells are divided at one second in an adult’s body, and the body's blood cells constantly renew at the rate of about 100 million per minute. In the process of cell division and growth, those charged bodies of atomic nucleuses constituting atoms as the basic unit of cell and the electrons outside the nucleus are in constant high-speed movement and changing, thereby constantly emitting electromagnetic waves.

The electromagnetic wave signals emitted by the human body represent the specific state of the human body, and the emitted electromagnetic wave signals are different under the different conditions of the human body, such as health, sub-health, disease, etc. If we can determine these specific electromagnetic wave signals, we can determine the status of the body's life.


Quantum medicine considers that the most fundamental reason of falling sick is that the spin of electrons outside the atomic nucleus and the orbit change, thereby causing the change of atoms constituting a material, the change of small biomolecules, the change of big biomolecules, the change of all the cells and finally the change of organs. Because the electron is a charged body, when the spin of electrons outside the atomic nucleus and the orbit change, the electromagnetic wave emitted by the atoms will change. The energy o f the electromagnetic wave changes caused by the changes of the human body’s diseases and physical changes in the nutritional status is extremely weak and usually is only nano gauss to microgauss. The frequency and energy of the weak magnetic field of hair determined directly or by holding a sensor by hand compare with the resonance spectra of standard quantum of diseases and nutrition indicators set in the instrument after the frequency and energy are amplified by the instrument and processed by the computer, and then the corresponding quantum value being from negative to positive is output. The size of the quantum value indicates the nature and extent of the disease and the nutrition levels. Finally, the test results are resolved by clinicians. For example, cancer cells are different from normal cells, and the electromagnetic waves emitted by cancer cells are also different from the electromagnetic waves emitted by normal cells. Quantum resonance testing tumor is to send the standard wave of cancer cells to the specimen. If there are cancer cells in the human body, resonance will occur, and the instrument will detect the signal. The more the number of cancer cells is, the more intense the signal is, and the quantum value tends to the negative value. If there are no cancer cells, resonance will do not occur, and the quantum value tends to the positive value. It's similar to the principle of listening to broadcasting from the radio. There are many radio waves in the air. If you want to listen to some designated broadcasting, you can transfer the radio to the corresponding frequency, at this moment, resonance occurs, so that you can listen to this broadcasting. Quantum resonance uses this principle for testing.

why quantum bio energy analyzer ?

Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. Examples include the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials.

Reference: Jaakko Malmivuo, Robert Plonsey, Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields. Oxford University Press. New York, Oxford. 1995. Introduction.
With an accuracy rate of up to 85%, the QRMA’s sensitivity provides a view of potential precursors to chronic disease by detecting 10 or more cells in a disease state. Early detection of potential disease enables practitioners and their clients to establish strategies to return the body to a balanced state.

How to use the quantum analyzer Back up and Restore the Database function

The system supports the backup and restoring of the existing database, so that the complete data can be reserved to reduce the loss when the computer has problems or is invaded by viruses.

Click the button “Backup” and the button “Restore” in the toolbar to enter the corresponding program, and click the button “Start” to select the saving path and the file name or backup files to operate properly.

Note: During restoring data, the system will automatically cover the existing database, so the function must be carefully used when the existing database has important data.

How to use the quantum analyzer software (software use step)

1)Enter the system
Click  “Program->  Quantum  BIO-Electric  System->  Quantum  BIO-Electric System”, or directly and doubly click the shortcut icon (the following picture) of [Quantum BIO-Electric System] on the table;
2)Main interface
The meridian testing main interface is as shown in the following picture. System Interface Quantum  BIO  Electric  System–Instructions Personnel management interface Click  the  button  “Personnel  Management”  in  the  toolb
ar,  so  the  window “Personnel Management” will appear (as shown in the following picture). This window  mainly  manages  the  basic  information  of  all the  tested  persons, wherein the left side shows the customer’s manageme
nt files, and the right side shows the selected customer's “basic information” and “testing record”.
(1)Customer’s file management Mainly manage the customer’s information, mainly including:
(2)“Add” tested persons and groups
(3)“Modify” the information of the tested  persons and groups
(4) “Delete” the information of the tested persons and groups
(5)“Inquire” the tested persons Quantum  BIO  Electric  System–Instructions
(6)Personnel management Mainly divide the customers into several groups to be easy to manage the customers. Click the button “Add” in the groups to add the group. (As the below picture) Click the button “Save” to add the ne
w group. Click the button “Modify” to modify the name of the group, and click the button “Delete” to delete the group.(Note: if there are persons in the group, you must delete the tested persons first and then delete the group.)
3)Tested person management

Click the name of group on the left side to make it become blue, and then click the button “Add” in the tested person part (as shown in the right picture), so that the new persons are added into the corresponding group. The information of the tested person is as shown in the following picture. Orderly  input  name,  sex,  date  of  birth  (in  the  order  of  year-month-date), stature,  weight  and other  necessary  information,  an
d then  click  the button “Save”. (Note: name, sex, date of birth, stature and weight must be input, and other information may not be input.); Quantum  BIO  Electric  System–Instructions
4)Testing record management
Mainly manage the testing records of the customers (See the below picture for details), mainly including the contents of testing date, testing time, name, age, sex, etc. Click the corresponding customer on the left side, so the details of all the testing  records  of  the  customer  will  appear  (to  be arrayed  in  the  reverse chronological order).  Start testing Select the tested person on the left side to make it become blue, then click the button  “Quantum  Testing”  in  the  toolbar,  so  the  content  as  shown  in  the following picture will appear; click the button “Start Testing” on the picture; Quantum  BIO  Electric  System–Instructions
(1)Testing process
Prompt the tested person to grasp the test rod by the left or right hand. And put pad on the head. In the testing process, the tested person should relax feeling, not speak, and keep breathing balance;
(2)Finish testing
After the test is finished, click the button “Save”.
Obtaining the Report

Quantum analyzer Work Systems of the Testing Room

1.Keep the testing room clean and quiet, and pay attention to electrical safety.
2.Before testing, metal and communication equipment on the tested person’s body should be removed for proper placement.
3.Those who wear pacemakers are not appropriate for testing.
4.During work, inspect whether the power supply and the testing system are in a good using condition.
5.In the testing process, the operational regulation must be strictly observed.
6.Out of work, cut off the power supply and clear up the used equipment and the tester to make them be in a good standby condition.

quantum resonance magnetic analyzer Precautions

Functional Characteristics:

Distinguish truth from falsehood

With our quantum genuine software development, some copy edition (crack edition) also appear constantly. So improve our ability to distinguish is very important.

The suggestion of quantum software Engineering Experts give us how to distinguish the genuine and crack as follows:

1, The crack edition, also called cloning edition, which some businesses decoding for security key and software of the original genuine software, then cloning or copy it.

2, The genuine software can adjust any parts to adapt all kinds new software and operating system for clients to upgrade, while the cloning one just only can adjust sample film of what their decoded , as interface graph, suggestion and so on..

3, the most of crack editions are incompatible with WIN7, what’s more, those crack editions always carry with virus.

4, in order to sell with more lower price, the crack edition business have to reduce the cost of hardware so that the quality is poor. The lift of crack editions’ chips and accessories crack editions’ is very shot.

quantum bio energy analyzer quantum bio energy analyzer


microcirculation microscope and its parts is What?

microcirculation microscope and its parts is What?


nailfold capillary microscopy in scleroderma

What is microcirculation microscope Overview

The AVACEN 100, Class-IIa, OTC medical device has been awarded the European Union CE (Conformité Européenne) Mark and is approved by Health Canada for the temporary increase of microcirculation.

AVACEN 100 U.S. FDA-Clearance: A heat therapy system indicated for the temporary relief of minor muscle and joint pain and stiffness; the temporary relief of joint pain associated with arthritis; muscle spasms; minor strains and sprains; muscular relaxation; and the temporary increase of local circulation where applied.

NOTICE: The AVACEN 100 is not for sale in the U.S. for any FDA non-cleared indication mentioned in this document including MICROCIRCULATION.

The AVACEN-100 uses the AVACEN Treatment Method to temporarily increase microcirculation to aid in the relief of minor muscle and joint pain and stiffness and the temporary relief of joint pain associated with conditions such as arthritis and fibromyalgia.

Getting your exercise and increasing your heart rate on a regular basis are obviously very good for your body.

One of the reasons increased circulation is so good for you has to do with a lesser talked about subject of naturally increased microcirculation.

While circulation refers to blood flow to and from vital organs, microcirculation refers to blood flow in the smallest blood vessels in the body – capillaries, arterioles, and other such blood vessels. These blood vessels are often embedded in the organs, including the skin, and interact directly with muscle tissue.

Poor microcirculation is one of the single biggest contributing factors to almost all health problems: Diabetes, hypertension, vascular disease, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, Alzheimer’s, early aging and others. It is estimated that 80% of the population over the age of 40 may have moderately to extremely serious microcirculation problems and almost every non-injury related pain can be traced to a compromised microcirculation issue.

Until recently, there has never really been an increase in a body’s microcirculation without a proportionally larger increase in the body’s circulation. Meaning, you couldn’t really get the benefits of increased microcirculation without exercising, doing yoga, working out, going in a sauna or jacuzzi, stretching, water aerobics, or other activities that might get the blood flowing.

Reading and you will quickly see why increased microcirculation just may be exactly what your body needs to reduce pain and swelling on a daily basis.

nailfold capillary microscopy scleroderma

How to Installation and use the nailfold microcirculation microscope?

    Insert the Monitor into the microscope.
    Plug in 110Vto220 V power supply, and turn on the switch.
    Spread a little fragrant pitch on the nail fold of the third finger on left hand and put it in the finger seat, adjust the vertical-horizontal platform to make the nail fold under the objective lens, use the structure of ascent and descent adjustment to adjust the focus until the image become clear.
    Horizontally move the Light source to adjust the direction or angle of image on the monitor.

What is The distribution model diagram of nail fold capillaries:

nail plate
nail fold
Inframammillary venous plexus (deep layer)
Inframammillary venous plexus(superficial layer)
Capillary ansa
Flexible branch
Afferent branch
Efferent branch
Perivascular spaces
Hypodermic tissue
Small vein
Glomeriform arteriovenous shunt
Small artery
Inframammillary venous plexus
Thin vein
Thin artery
Arteriovenous shunt

What is Fingernail Growth and Microcirculation

Fingernails reach their peak growth in the second and third decades, with a slight decline thereafter. A possible reason, is decreased blood flow and medical conditions that can affect it — like Raynaud’s phenomenon, which causes a spasmodic constriction of blood flow.

As the nail receives nutrition from blood flow, new nail plate cells are made. They push older nail plate cells forward extending the length of the nail. In humans, nails grow at an average rate of 3 mm (0.12 in) a month.

Using the AVACEN 100 has been shown to increase projected fingernail growth by approximately 400% of normal expected growth on both the treatment hand and the opposite hand. This is attributed to the increased microvascular circulation and nutrition initiated by the device.*

A 56 year old female was used in the pictures below. Only the left hand was used in the AVACEN 100 for a 6 day period. Using recognized nail growth calculations; the average age adjusted nail growth should be approximately 1/10th of an inch for an entire month . The pictures below shows the nail growth on the right hand to be approximately 1/10th of an inch in only 6 days.

What is Microcirculation Capillary Observation

Introduction: The AVACEN 100 continues to warm the blood passing through the treatment palm, which then circulates throughout the entire body increasing core body temperature. When core body temperature rises, pre-capillary arterioles dilate causing normally collapsed capillaries to open further improving microcirculation throughout the body. This allows excess heat to be dissipated by convection and radiation into the cooler ambient environment until the blood becomes cooler.

Hypothesis: If the AVACEN 100 is effecting the entire body, then distant capillaries from the AVACEN treatment hand should exhibit increased blood flow (microcirculation) after treatment.

Materials and Methods: A microcirculation microscope (Shenzhen GH Biotechnology Development Co. model 380, with Cargille immersion oil type A), was used to observe capillary blood flow on the right hand ring finger in an area just below the finger nail (“Before” figure). The left hand was then treated using the AVACEN 100 medical device to infuse heat into the circulatory system for 20 minutes. Immediately following the AVACEN 100 treatment of the left hand, the same capillary area on the right hand was observed (“After” figure). To make sure the same capillaries were observed pre and post treatment, the finger was inserted into the stationary finger holder up to the point where a stop secured to the bottom side of the finger preventing further forward movement. All focusing and platform adjusters remained in the identical setting.

 Results: A significant increase in capillary blood flow in the right hand immediately after AVACEN 100 treatment of the left hand palm was observed.

What is Capillaroscopy ?

The capillaroscopy is a non-invasive technique at nailfold level, making it possible to assess the characteristics of the nailfold distal capillaries, thanks to a lens and a light that shines on said spot.

The information it provides us with helps to complete the diagnosis of the vasculitic autoimmune process of the patient; it does not permit a diagnosis or specific therapeutic approach on its own.

For its correct visualisation, the patient is recommended:

    Not to wear nail varnish and to avoid external harm (bumps, wounds, nail biting)
    Not to smoke in the 2 hours prior to the test
    To remain in the a room with a temperature of between 22ºC and 25ºC to avoid vasoconstriction episodes due to exogenous factors.


The capillaroscopy allows us to know the extent of the distal vascularisation, which is very important in systemic sclerosis and other connective pathologies, as well as to rule out systemic involvement in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon with no other associated clinical involvement.


The capillaroscopy of the nail bed is a simple, bloodless, economical method which is very useful for studying Raynaud's phenomenon and other rheumatological conditions. Raynaud's phenomenon can be defined as the change in the colouring of the fingers and/or toes in response to cold or stress. It traditionally progresses through three stages: paleness (vasospasm), cyanosis (due to increased carboxyhemoglobin) and erythema (reactive hiperemia).

Raynaud's phenomenon can be primary (Raynaud's disease) or secondary, associated with a connective tissue disease. Primary Raynaud's phenomenon is responsible for around 60% of all new cases. 15-20% of cases of Raynaud's phenomenon are due to a series of non- immunological processes, such as drugs, occupational diseases, neoplasms, etc. The remaining 15-20% are associated with connective tissue diseases.

Raynaud's is present in over 90% of patients with scleroderma and in 70% of cases it is the first symptom. Although it seems impossible to predict that a patient with Raynaud's will develop scleroderma, the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) indicates a greater risk of onset.


The nail bed capillaroscopy shows morphological alterations at an early stage in some connective tissue diseases of maximum rheumatological interest, particularly capillaroscopy. In these cases, the capillaroscopy traditionally shows the "sclerodermic pattern" characterised by: reduction or absence of capillaries in patches, capillary dilation, and sometimes mega-capillaries and splinter haemorrhages. This "sclerodermic pattern" appears early and when it is observed in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon, even if it is not very obvious, it should lead to the search for sclerodermic manifestations in internal organs, which can be present without causing any symptoms. The combination of Raynaud's phenomenon and a "sclerodermic pattern" in a capillaroscopy can precede and therefore predict the onset of scleroderma.


    In dermatomyositis, the capillaroscopy is similar and sometimes indistinguishable from that found in scleroderma. These patients generally present the other clinical, enzymatic or electromyographic manifestations of dermatomyositis that enable its recognition and diagnosis.
    In mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) or overlap syndromes that a sclerodermic component, the findings of the capillaroscopy can be similar although rarely are large capillary dilations and mega-capillaries observed. These capillaroscopies must be analysed by an expert.
    In systemic lupus erythematosus, the alterations in the capillaroscopy are non-specific, and it is possible to find focal capillary reduction, albeit not very strong. The capillaries can be somewhat dilated and tortuous, sometimes with criss-crossing of the arterial and venous components (ringlets), the latter being the most characteristic finding in the capillaroscopy.
    In primary Raynaud's phenomenon, the most striking characteristic is the elongated capillaries with undulations throughout the arterial and venous components. Little or no reduction or dilation of the capillaries can be observed. Splinter haemorrhages are scarce and small.

Ultimately, this is an auxiliary diagnostic technique with great value in rheumatology and vascular disease.

Where and who need the nailfold microcirculation microscope?

The microcirculation microscope is widely used in the field of hospitals, school laboratories, clinics, etc., as the best auxiliary testing equipment. And it is also used in health food industry, as a communication platform for product promotion when, making money equipment, beauty industry.

For it is non-invasive, only to observe the end of the finger armor section, you can do the blood microcirculation review. You can observe microcirculation pipe loop patterns, the number of pipe loop, blood flow, bleeding, etc., help determine the sub-health status and blood stasis and brain / cardiovascular related diseases.


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Why We Use Dark Ground illumination and application

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What is a Dark Ground illumination? The dark field microscopic examination of freshly collected, vital blood is a pillar of the Paracelsus Clinica al Ronc holistic medical diagnosis. It provides information on the internal milieu and function of the blood cells, as well as the amount and development of endobionts, from which microorganisms and more sophisticated structures, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, develop.

How to made the darkfield illumination ?

It is very easy to make darkfield illumination yourself. What you have to do is place an opaque round stop in the condenser. An easy way is to cut a piece of black paper and put it on a filter in your filterholder. You can put the stop on a piece of clear acetate sheet. You can even try to draw the stop on it with black paint. The most important thing is to have it big enough to stop all light going directly into the objective. Only the light that is reflected by the objects in the sample reaches the objective then. Stronger objectives are more difficult because their NA is often too high. The NA of your condenser should always be higher then the NA of the objective. If patch-stops of 8, 10, 12 and 15mm are made you can't go wrong really. For objectives of around x10 the middle sizes prove best.If you like to make the patchstop as precise as possible: The best way is to set up as normal (brightfield), remove the eyepiece and close/open the substage iris until it is *just* visible. Then, either bending your neck over double, or carefully removing the condenser, measure the diameter of the iris diaphragm as it is now set. A pair of calipers is useful here. This diameter is that for the patch stop. Very often, to be on the safe side it is best to add about 10% to this figure, this avoids leakage, especially if you have no means of centering the stop in the filter holder. If you have a phase contrast condenser, the largest phase contrast annuli often make excellent patch stops for darkfield!The real connoisseurs must have recognized the skills of Klaus Kemp in the arranged (cleaned) diatom slide photographed by Mike Samworth.

What Different Dark Ground illumination from conventional microscopy?

In conventional bright field illumination, your specimen is lit from a central light source (you can read more about bright field microscopy in this Bitesize Bio article). This results in a large contrast image. However, in dark field microscopy this light source is blocked by a condenser or a ‘stop’ below the stage. This condenser or stop scatters the light allowing only oblique rays to reflect and refract off your specimen which in turn creates a bright image on a dark background.

What Dark Ground illumination Applications

Viewing blood cells (biological darkfield microscope, combined with phase contrast)
Viewing bacteria (biological darkfield microscope, often combined with phase contrast)
Viewing different types of algae (biological darkfield microscope)
Viewing hairline metal fractures (metallurgical darkfield microscope)
Viewing diamonds and other precious stones (gemological microscope or stereo darkfield microscope)
Viewing shrimp or other invertebrates (stereo darkfield microscope)

In darkfield microscopy, contrast is created by a bright specimen on a dark background. It is ideal for revealing outlines, edges, boundaries, and refractive index gradients but does not provide a great deal of information about internal structure. Ideal subjects include living, unstained cells (where darkfield illumination provides information not visible with other techniques), although fixed stains cells can also be imaged successfully. Darkfield imaging is particularly useful in haematology for the examination of fresh blood. Non-biological specimens include minerals, chemical crystals, colloidal particles, inclusions and porosity in glass, ceramics, and polymer thin sections.

What is Advantages of Dark Ground illumination?

A dark field microscope is ideal for viewing objects that are unstained, transparent and absorb little or no light.

These specimens often have similar refractive indices as their surroundings, making them hard to distinguish with other illumination techniques.

You can use dark field to study marine organisms such as algae and plankton, diatoms, insects, fibers, hairs, yeast and protozoa as well as some minerals and crystals, thin polymers and some ceramics.

You can also use dark field in the research of live bacterium, as well as mounted cells and tissues.

It is more useful in examining external details, such as outlines, edges, grain boundaries and surface defects than internal structure.

Dark field microscopy is often dismissed for more modern observation techniques such as phase contrast and DIC, which provide more accurate, higher contrasted images and can be used to observe a greater number of specimens.

Recently, dark field has regained some of its popularity when combined with other illumination techniques, such as fluorescence, which widens its possible employment in certain fields.

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